As the name indicates, control unit controls the flow of instructions and data throughout the system. So basically a microprocessor takes input from input devices, process it as per instructions given in the memory and produces output. Microprocessors are available at low cost due to integrated circuit technology.
The data is processed using the microprocessor’s ALU (arithmetical and logical unit), control unit, and a register array. The register array processes the data via a number of registers that act as temporary fast access memory locations.
The microprocessor contains the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to perform the functions of a computer’s central processing unit. The integrated circuit is capable of interpreting and executing program instructions and performing arithmetic operations.