Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework

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Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework

The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework, or TPACK for short, is a theoretical model that helps teachers integrate technology effectively in their instruction. It was developed by Punya Mishra and Matthew J. Koehler in 2006, based on the idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge by Lee Shulman.

TPACK suggests that teachers need to have three types of knowledge: Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Knowledge (PK), and Technological Knowledge (TK). CK is the subject matter that teachers teach, such as math, science, or history. PK is the methods and strategies that teachers use to teach, such as direct instruction, inquiry, or cooperative learning. TK is the tools and resources that teachers use to support teaching and learning, such as computers, software, or multimedia.

However, TPACK goes beyond these three types of knowledge and emphasizes the interactions and intersections among them. TPACK argues that effective technology integration requires teachers to understand how technology relates to both the content and the pedagogy. For example, how can a specific software program help students learn a particular concept? How can a certain online platform facilitate a certain type of discussion? How can a digital game enhance a specific skill?

Therefore, TPACK identifies four more types of knowledge that teachers need to have: Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). PCK is the knowledge of how to teach a specific content area effectively. TCK is the knowledge of how technology can be used to represent and communicate content in different ways. TPK is the knowledge of how technology can be used to support various pedagogical approaches and goals.